Thursday, September 03, 2009



Intentional tremor in cerebellar ataxia

Romberg test 2

Romberg sign

Festinating gait in Parkinson's disease

Cerebellar gait

Spastic gait

Sunday, December 17, 2006

Video: Frontotemporal dementia - Diagnosis

Tuesday, November 21, 2006

Video: Multiple Sclerosis

Wednesday, November 15, 2006

Video: FDA Approves First Drug to Help Patients with Parkinson's Disease Dementia

Monday, November 13, 2006

Plasmapheresis in Acute Central Nervous System Inflammation

Presentation from 2001 International Transverse Myelitis Symposium in Baltimore. Brian G. Weinshenker, MD Professor of Neurology Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota

Video: Lessons from ADEM/Acute Leukoencephalopathies

Presentation from 2001 International Transverse Myelitis Symposium in Baltimore. David Irani, MD Assistant Professor of Neurology. Co-Director, Johns Hopkins Transverse Myelopathy Center (JHTMC) Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Monday, May 08, 2006

The diagnosis of manganese-induced parkinsonism

From NeuroToxicology Volume 27, Issue 3 , May 2006, Pages 340-346

Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome consisting of tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, gait, balance problems, in addition to various non-motor symptoms. There are many causes of parkinsonism such as neurodegenerative disease, drugs, vascular causes, structural lesions, infections, and toxicants. Parkinson's disease, or idiopathic parkinsonism, is the most common form of parkinsonism observed in the clinic. There is degeneration of the substantia nigra, pars compacta, which results in loss of striatal dopamine. Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive condition in which there is a dramatic and sustained responsiveness to levodopa therapy. Manganese is an essential trace element that can be associated with neurotoxicity. Hypermanganism can occur in a variety of clinical settings. The clinical symptoms of manganese intoxication include non-specific complaints, neurobehavioral changes, parkinsonism, and dystonia. Although the globus pallidus is the main structure of damage, other basal ganglia areas can also be involved. MRI scans may show globus pallidus changes during (and for a short period after) exposure. Fluorodopa PET scans that assess the integrity of the substantia nigra dopaminergic system are abnormal in Parkinson's disease. However, these scans re-reported to be normal in a few cases studied with manganese-induced parkinsonism. The parkinsonism due to manganese may have some clinical features that occur less commonly in Parkinson's disease, such as kinetic tremor, dystonia, specific gait disturbances, and early mental, balance and speech changes. The clinical signs tend to be bilateral whereas Parkinson's disease begins on one side of the body. Patients with manganese-induced parkinsonism may be younger at the onset of the disease than with Parkinson's disease. Lastly, there appears to be a lack of response to levodopa therapy in manganese-induced parkinsonism.

Sunday, April 30, 2006

Identification of potential CSF biomarkers in ALS

From NEUROLOGY 2006;66:1218-1222

Background: The clinical diagnosis of ALS is based entirely on clinical features. Identification of biomarkers for ALS would be important for diagnosis and might also provide clues to pathogenesis.

Objective: To determine if there is a specific protein profile in the CSF that distinguishes patients with ALS from those with purely motor peripheral neuropathy (PN) and healthy control subjects.

Methods: CSF obtained from patients with ALS, disease controls (patients with other neurologic disorders), and normal controls were analyzed using the surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry proteomics technique. Biomarker sensitivity and specificity was calculated with receiver operating characteristic curve methodology. ALS biomarkers were purified and sequence identified by mass spectrometry–directed peptide sequencing.

Results: In initial proteomic discovery studies, three protein species (4.8-, 6.7-, and 13.4-kDa) that were significantly lower in concentration in the CSF from patients with ALS (n = 36) than in normal controls (n = 21) were identified. A combination of three protein species (the "three-protein" model) correctly identified patients with ALS with 95% accuracy, 91% sensitivity, and 97% specificity from the controls. Independent validation studies using separate cohorts of ALS (n = 13), healthy control (n = 25), and PN (n = 7) subjects confirmed the ability of the three CSF protein species to separate patients with ALS from other diseases. Protein sequence analysis identified the 13.4-kDa protein species as cystatin C and the 4.8-kDa protein species as a peptic fragment of the neurosecretory protein VGF.

Conclusion: Additional application of a "three-protein" biomarker model to current diagnostic criteria may provide an objective biomarker pattern to help identify patients with ALS.

Molecular mimicry in multiple sclerosis

From Autoimmunity, Volume 39, Number 1, Number 1/February 2006

Reviewed by Sospedra, Mireia1; Martin, Roland2

Two main etiological components are considered important in human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), first the immunogenetic background and second environmental factors. Among the latter, infectious organisms are probably the most relevant, and epidemiological studies in MS firmly support that viral infections often precede disease exacerbations or the onset of MS. Infectious agents can contribute to disease development or phenotypic expression in different ways. Our focus will be directed on molecular mimicry, i.e. antigenic similarity between structural epitopes or peptide sequences from infectious organisms with those found in self proteins of the host. The intriguing concept of molecular mimicry has evolved substantially since its introduction over 20 years ago. We will summarize the most important developments and discuss puzzling questions, which remain open despite many claims that molecular mimicry is involved in the development of human autoimmune disease after infections or vaccinations.